Friday, October 15, 2010

Some Information On A Haplogroup

A haplogroup is a group of haplotypes that are similar and all have an ancestor in common. It is a part of the study of molecular evolution where the ancestor shared has a single nucleotide polymorphism mutation, or an SNP mutation. They are a design found in mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomes and they pertain to genealogy and family history researching. They can even date back to tracing ancestral origins of over a thousand years.

A haplogroup is similar to a family tree. In a family tree, the branches extend out to show family members that are only present in recent years. For haplogroups, the branches extend out to early migrations of populations of people. Typically, they are sorted by geographical regions. By comparing genealogy such as the mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomal DNA, people can locate these branches to better understand and discover more about the family history.

Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomal DNA define genetic populations. Fathers pass on their Y DNA to their sons and the mitochondrial DNA is passed from the mother to both sons and daughters. They cannot recombine or intermix so the genetic materials of both parents are clear and can be recognized and traced.

People who wish to know more about their family origin can use mitochondrial DNA testing to do so. Many universities with a department concerned with genealogy can provide this service. They will use Y DNA tests if the other type cannot be conducted for any reason.

They only difference between them is that the mitochondrial test is more definite and can confirm lineage, while the Y test is based more on predictions which are based upon the DNA within a family tree. That is not to say the predictions are not accurate. If both tests do not provide enough information or results, there is a third test that can be conducted called a deep clade test.

Haplogroups can have subgroups. These subgroups can be traced to particular individual haplogroups. These can also lead to the further expansion of more groups to be examined and tested. Human genetic diversity can be found in these along with the mitochondrial and Y DNA. This can also lead to more single nucleotide polymorphism mutations to be discovered which expands the pool of potential ancestor discovery because there will be more subgroups.

Haplotype mutations that have undergone no to little natural selection that still survived to the present date are the best things to use to identify family ancestry based on genetics. It helps in identifying the genetic drift that occurred. Genetic drift is where individuals pass their genetic DNA to their offspring of the next generation. This aides in people being able to also identify certain genetic markers which can be compared and used to determine ancestry and origin.

That was some information on a haplogroup. They are part of studies that provide people with more information on their family genes and family background. People interested in learning of their origins that date back to a thousand years can use such information to do so.

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